# [sdiy] 90-degree phase displacement network calculations

Wed Jan 6 09:18:03 CET 2021

```This is absolutely fantastic work, David!

(noting I need to update my excel [/openoffice] skills)

Tom

On 06/01/2021 04:46, David G Dixon wrote:
> Well, that was easier than I thought it would be.
> I've now got a function in Excel that predicts the RC factors for the
> all-pass filters in any 90-degree PDN.  Here is the function:
> PDN90RC(F1, F2, NN, N)
> I've made it so that NN is the number of filter stages in each chain,
> so half the total.  This way, it confines one to an even number of
> filter stages.  So, for the classic 15 Hz to 15 kHz unit with 12
> filter stages, NN = 6, and the function would be:
> PDN90RC(15, 15000, 6, 1) = 0.0301
> If one sets up a column of integers from 1 to 12, and puts the
> function next to that with those cell values as N, then one gets the
> following:
> 1 	3.0100E-02
> 2 	8.6072E-03
> 3 	3.8927E-03
> 4 	1.9037E-03
> 5 	9.4806E-04
> 6 	4.7422E-04
> 7 	2.3740E-04
> 8 	1.1875E-04
> 9 	5.9136E-05
> 10 	2.8920E-05
> 11 	1.3080E-05
> 12 	3.7402E-06
>
> I have confirmed that these are exactly the same values generated by
> the QuadNet program.  The cool thing is that this still works if you
> exchange the two end frequencies, so:
> PDN90RC(15000, 15, 6, 1) = 0.0301
> Remember that one filter chain takes the odd-numbered RC values, and
> the other filter chain takes the even-numbered RC values.
> Here is the code:
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> Option Base 0
> Function PDN90RC(f1, f2, nn, n)
> Dim k(8) As Double
> Dim kp(8) As Double
> Dim sn(8) As Double
> Pi = 3.14159265359
> f = (f1 * f2) ^ (0.5)
> kp(0) = f1 / f2
> For j = 1 To 8
>   k(j) = (1 - kp(j - 1)) / (1 + kp(j - 1))
>   kp(j) = (1 - k(j) ^ 2) ^ (0.5)
> Next j
> sn(8) = Sin((2 * n - 1) * (Pi / 2) / (4 * nn))
> For j = 7 To 0 Step -1
>   sn(j) = (1 + k(j + 1)) * sn(j + 1) / (1 + k(j + 1) * sn(j + 1) ^ 2)
> Next j
> cn = (1 - sn(0) ^ 2) ^ (0.5)
> pole = kp(0) ^ (-0.5) * cn / sn(0)
> PDN90RC = pole / (2 * Pi * f)
> End Function
> ---------------------------------------------------------------------
> successive Landen transformations are enough to get to k = 0 and k' =
> 1 from any starting k' value, and therefore, sn(u,k) = sin(u).  No
> matter the value of k' (which is F1/F2), this result is always reached
> within 8 transformation steps.  Sometimes, of course, it is reached in
> fewer steps, but I just set the number of transformations to 8.  The
> variables sn(0) and cn are the Jacobi elliptic sine and cosine, from
> which the filter poles are calculated directly.
> This was fun.
> Cheers,
> Doc Sketchy
>
> ------------------------------------------------------------------------
> *From:* Synth-diy [mailto:synth-diy-bounces at synth-diy.org] *On Behalf
> Of *David G Dixon
> *Sent:* Tuesday, January 05, 2021 6:42 PM
> *To:* 'synth-diy at synth-diy.org'
> *Subject:* [sdiy] 90-degree phase displacement network calculations
>
> [*CAUTION:* Non-UBC Email]
> Hello SDIY Team,
> So, ever since I've been building Bode frequency shifters, I've been
> curious about how to actually design best-case 90-degree phase
> displacement networks.  Here's a brief history of my experience with this:
> First, I used the numbers in the Electronotes article, EN-168.
> Then I discovered the QuadNet program on the internet, which gives
> more accurate PDNs than the Electronotes numbers. However, the QuadNet
> program is a pain to use, and restricts one to certain frequency
> ranges.  For example, you can't have a low frequency lower than 1 Hz,
> or a frequency range higher than 4 orders of magnitude.  I want to go
> So, the Electronotes method is an approximation to the problem
> reported by Weaver in 1954 (which I tracked down).  It's easy to use,
> but does not give true Chebyshev approximation accuracy.
> I contacted the guy who wrote the QuadNet program to see if he could
> give me the source of the math he used in the program.  He had
> forgotten, and didn't have any documentation.
> So, I started looking up the original references for this problem.
> After much hunting, I found Darlington's paper from 1950 in the Bell
> Labs technical journal.  It explains the problem, but not in a way in
> which my tiny brain could make immediate use.
> After a bit more searching, I found a Masters thesis by a guy named
> Donald Douglas from 1961, and his references included another
> 1950 paper by a guy named Orchard from a journal called Wireless
> Engineer.  I finally found a PDF of this article on the web lastnight,
> and I have now been able to exactly reproduce my designs from QuadNet
> using the techniques in this paper.  Thankfully, there is a very nice
> numerical example in the paper which demonstrates the use of the
> Landen transformation to calculate Jacobi's elliptic sine function
> from circular sines.  With this, it is trivially easy to find the
> correct RC factors for the chains of first-degree allpass filters.
> As of now, I can do it very quickly in an Excel spreadsheet, but I'm
> going to write a function subprogram in Visual Basic that will make
> the RC factors available as an Excel function -- something like
> PDN90RC(F1, F2, N, n) where F1 and F2 are the mininum and maximum
> frequencies, N is the total number of filter stages, and n is the
> filter stage of interest.
> I'll let you all know when I've got the function subprogram figured
> out.  Maybe I'll write a little paper about it as well.
> Cheers,
> Doc Sketchy
>
> _______________________________________________
> Synth-diy mailing list
> Synth-diy at synth-diy.org
> http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy
> Selling or trading? Use marketplace at synth-diy.org

--
BugBrand LTD
UK company No. 07199808
VAT No. GB 988 2629 57
1 Ninetree Hill
BRISTOL BS1 3SB
United Kingdom
www.bugbrand.co.uk

-------------- next part --------------
An HTML attachment was scrubbed...
URL: <http://synth-diy.org/pipermail/synth-diy/attachments/20210106/e927b982/attachment.htm>
```