# [sdiy] Techniques for Multiplying MIDI Clock frequency?

Benjamin Tremblay btremblay at me.com
Sat Dec 18 21:12:17 CET 2021

```Interesting topic!

I have been wanting to write some code like this for a KPR-77. Goal would be MIDI clock in, TTL-ish clock out. 24ppq>48ppq.

The first challenge is converting 24ppq computer signals to 24 HIGH/LOW pin state transitions per quarter note.

One thing that discouraged me was MIDI clock coming from my Boss DR-202.  When I play a complex pattern on that thing, I start losing clock steps. I could not figure out why, so I gave up on multiplying the clock.
If I use a plain vanilla drum machine (as opposed to a groove box), it seems to work okay.

I wrote this code for Arduino Mega, and then tried it with Teensy, but either way it has the same problems.

So, two different problems.
1) MIDI clock dropping out on groove boxes.
2) I wish I understood the theory of clock multipliers. I have seen code that measures the period between clock pulses and dead reckons the double-time pulse as an average of the recent periods. But why? Why can’t I just fire another extra HIGH-LOW pulse whenever I get a MIDI clock event? Why does timing of the extra ticks matter?  I’m assuming 48 PPQ divides the clock down to individual sequencer steps on the KPR-77. As long as the divided clock is coming in on the beat, what does it matter if some of the synthetic pulses are a little off? (They’re just shadows of the main tempo clock). It’s not like the KPR-77 is inferring something or trying to calculate BPM from the external clock… So… Anyway I just wish I knew what I was aiming for, and then maybe I could hit the target.

> On Dec 18, 2021, at 1:28 PM, Brian Willoughby <brianw at audiobanshee.com> wrote:
>
> When measuring the incoming clock period, filtering those values should smooth out the jitter. i.e. Rather than use each newly measured clock period directly, run it through a filter that averages it out with recent clock periods. The DPLL shows a 3rd order filter.
>
> For those commercial DPLLs, do they require 2 kHz as the multiplicand, or is that a master clock?
>
> Brian
>
> On Dec 18, 2021, at 03:26, Mikko Helin wrote:
>> There is at least one commercial MIDI clock multiplier:
>> https://tubbutec.de/product/audiowerkstatt-midi-clock-multiplier/
>>
>> That device does 2x - 9x multiply. I don't think MIDI clock at least
>> if the source is a DAW is quite stable source so multiplying more than
>> 10x might not give expected results. Also 31.25 Kbaud is low speed
>> anyway, every byte takes at least 0.32 ms to transfer. Regarding
>> polyrhytmics which are the actual multipliers needed? Commercially
>> available DPLLs ("jitter attenuators" etc.) require quit high input
>> freq from 2kHz up or so. You might be implement slower one using FPGA,
>> maybe you could use something like PSoC 5LP (\$10 board), see this PLL
>>
>> On Sat, Dec 18, 2021 at 12:11 PM Spiros Makris wrote:
>>>
>>> There are all excellent suggestions!
>>> I happen to have a prototype with a teensy 3.2 and midi In/Out capabilities on the bench, so I think I'm going to experiment with that first.
>>> The counter method is an open-loop approach, pretty much, and what I'm going to try first. I suppose if I closed the loop somehow it would become a "proper" DPLL. Maybe if I build a software phase detector and use the error signal in combination with the counted value to get more steady results?
>>> I believe going for the maximum clock speed and resolution combination for the frequency chosen (clock frequency / counter size < max midi clock frequency ?) is what will give the most accurate results.
>>>
>>> Spiros
>>>
>>> On Fri, Dec 17, 2021 at 10:50 AM Roman Sowa <modular at go2.pl> wrote:
>>>>
>>>> Measure incoming clock period with a timer. Then divide that measured
>>>> timer value by the number you want to multiply the frequency. If you say
>>>> anything between 10 and 100 is fine, then dividing by 32 sounds like
>>>> walk in a park. And that divided value (or simply shifted in case of 32)
>>>> is then loaded as period for another timer that outputs a pulse on overflow.
>>>> This way after each incoming clock pulse you get immediate response of
>>>> updated frequency multiplied by 64 (or whatever other value)
>>>>
>>>> Roman
>>>>
>>>> W dniu 2021-12-17 o 08:03, Spiros Makris via Synth-diy pisze:
>>>>> Hello List,
>>>>> I want to experiment with polymetric structures and create "non
>>>>> standard" subdivisions within the standard ones supported by MIDI. I
>>>>> have only worked with the 24ppq, using the timing messages to directly
>>>>> drive the sequencers. I would like a way to multiply the clock frequency
>>>>> in order to increase resolution, let's say by 10 or maybe 100 times, if
>>>>> that's feasible (I think it is?).
>>>>> I think this is achieved by a PLL. I understand the basic concepts of it
>>>>> and have used in the analog domain, but never did it in a digital only
>>>>> format. Furthermore, I suppose having an array of hardware peripherals,
>>>>> such as timers and interrupts, and a fairly fast processor (teensy 3.2)
>>>>> could open up other approaches that don't follow the standard PLL
>>>>> configuration.
>>>>> This has been on my mind for some time, but I don't really know where to
>>>>> start. Any advice, or resources are greatly appreciated
>>>>>
>>>>> Regards,
>>>>> Spiros
>
>
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