# [sdiy] lookup table oscillators

Tom Wiltshire tom at electricdruid.net
Fri Apr 1 11:45:26 CEST 2011

```That's a very nice summary, Gordon.

T.

On 1 Apr 2011, at 08:01, Gordon JC Pearce wrote:

> On Fri, 2011-04-01 at 01:59 -0400, dan snazelle wrote:
>> i tried reading the Hal Chamberlin writeup tonight but it confused me
>> quickly as it was technical in a way that honestly did not make a lot
>> of sense to me partially because he did not show any code for how to
>> do it.
>> i am not so great at math and there was a lot of math stuff I did not
>> quite understand.
>>
>> I really do want to understand though as i would like to experiment
>> with these on the arduino
>
> https://github.com/gordonjcp/gyoza
> http://interface.khm.de/index.php/lab/experiments/arduino-dds-sinewave-generator/
>
> It's called a "phase accumulator".  Imagine you've got a table of 256
> values that holds a sinewave.  Every time you're ready for a new sample,
> you read a value from the table and increase the pointer by one.  Now
> with a 32kHz sample rate that would give you a 32000/256 = 125Hz
> sinewave.  Now the most obvious way of changing that pitch would be to
> change the sample rate, but it's hard to do that for more than one
> oscillator (well, it's not, but you need multiple timers, DACs etc).
>
> The other way is to not just increment the counter by one every time you
> call for another sample.  If you increment by two you'll get a 250Hz
> tone, three will give you 375Hz, and so on.  Okay, so what about the
> frequencies in between?  Well, just add a non-integer value to the
> pointer!  If you add (say) 1.3 to the sample pointer, then truncate so
> you only use the integer part as the index into the wavetable then you
> go like this: 0, 1.3, 2.6, 3.9, 5.2, 6.5, 7.8, 9.1 and so on - and
> notice that we skipped sample 4 and 8 entirely?  This would give us a
> 162.5Hz sine wave.
>
> Now for speed's sake on a platform like the AVR, you wouldn't do the
> phase accumulator using floats - you'd use a 32-bit int and then just
> take the top eight bits as the wavetable index.  Early on in your
> program you compute a bunch of constants that map note frequency and
> sample rate to the phase accumulator offset, so you don't need to do a
> slow floating-point routine in the interrupt handler.
>
> HTH
> Gordon MM0YEQ
>
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