<html><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8"></head><body style="word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode: space; line-break: after-white-space;" class="">Thanks Magnus.<div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">What’s the “ghetto” way of doing such a test?!</div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">I don’t have either a reference source of frequencies that high (25-600KHz) or a spectrum analyser. The scope does an FFT, but that’s as close as it gets. I don’t even have a very accurate way to measure frequencies, much less while they’re jumping about.</div><div class=""><br class=""></div><div class="">Tom</div><div class=""><br class=""><div class="">
<div style="word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode: space; -webkit-line-break: after-white-space;" class=""><div style="color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; white-space: normal; widows: auto; word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;">==================<br class="">       Electric Druid<br class="">Synth & Stompbox DIY<br class="">==================</div></div>

</div>
<div><br class=""><blockquote type="cite" class=""><div class="">On 13 Feb 2020, at 14:15, Magnus Danielson <<a href="mailto:magnus@rubidium.se" class="">magnus@rubidium.se</a>> wrote:</div><br class="Apple-interchange-newline"><div class="">
  
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" class="">
  
  <div class=""><p class="">Hi,</p><p class="">The classical wow and flutter test is to use a reference signal
      and then measure side-band noise.</p><p class="">One way is to phase-lock an oscillator, as the phase-lock locks
      up, the lock forces the output of the phase-detector to produce
      side-band. Measure the noise out of the phase-detector, preferably
      with spectrum analyzer. With a separate oscillator being inserted
      offset from the carrier, with known amplitude and offset relative
      the carrier, the scale can be calibrated.<br class="">
    </p><p class="">Report noise amplitude in reference to the amplitude of the
      carrier wave. This phase-noise measurement is essentially what is
      described in IEEE Std 1139.</p><p class="">Cheers,<br class="">
      Magnus<br class="">
    </p>
    <div class="moz-cite-prefix">On 2020-02-11 13:06, Tom Wiltshire
      wrote:<br class="">
    </div>
    <blockquote type="cite" cite="mid:5123C853-5DF1-4B57-84D4-664DCA74BD1D@electricdruid.net" class="">
      <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" class="">
      Hi All,
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">I thought I’d give you an update on this.</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">I’ve been able implement some of the ideas you all
        provided, although it wasn’t straightforward (is it ever?).</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">Moving to the new chip allowed me to double the NCO
        clock to 32MHz (idea 1). I also doubled the frequency increment
        to use more resolution in the NCO (idea2). This means that the
        NCO output is four times higher than I need it, so I then have
        to implement /4 somehow (idea 3). Luckily there are two
        “Configurable Logic Cells” on the chip that can be set up as
        divide-by-two flip-flops. Unfortunately they don’t accept the
        output from the NCO as an input, so I had to route the NCO via
        another module (the “Digital Signal Modulator”) set-up to pass
        the NCO straight through. The final divided NCO output goes to
        the “Complementary Waveform Generator” module that makes the
        final biphase-output-with-deadband that I need.</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">In summary, the final “BBD Clock” uses five
        different hardware modules on the 16F18313 chip! It looks like
        this:</div>
      <div class=""> </div>
      <div class="">NCO -> DSM -> CLC1 -> CLC2 -> CWG</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">Ok, so in theory I should see some improvement in
        performance. Now I come to my new question! -</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">How can I evaluate the performance of this version
        against the old version?</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">Currently the only real metric I have is “does it
        sound noisy?” when it’s put in the final circuit. This isn’t
        great since the noise level depends very heavily on the exact
        relationship between the frequency increment and the NCO length,
        so it can vary markedly for quite small changes.</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
      </div>
      <div class="">Thanks,</div>
      <div class="">Tom</div>
      <div class=""><br class="">
        <div class="">
          <div style="word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode: space;
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                     Electric Druid<br class="">
              Synth & Stompbox DIY<br class="">
              ==================</div>
          </div>
        </div>
        <div class=""><br class="">
          <blockquote type="cite" class="">
            <div class="">On 31 Jan 2020, at 12:07, Tom Wiltshire <<a href="mailto:tom@electricdruid.net" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">tom@electricdruid.net</a>>
              wrote:</div>
            <br class="Apple-interchange-newline">
            <div class="">
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              <div style="word-wrap: break-word; -webkit-nbsp-mode:
                space; line-break: after-white-space;" class="">Ok, so
                the advice would be:
                <div class=""><br class="">
                </div>
                <div class="">1) Use the highest NCO clock I can to
                  minimise jitter</div>
                <div class="">2) Increase the frequency increments as
                  much as possible to use as much of the available
                  increment resolution as I can</div>
                <div class="">3) Divide the resulting frequency down if
                  it’s too much high</div>
                <div class="">4) Add a little bit of dither to break up
                  audible cycles/tones</div>
                <div class="">5) Sample the LFO at as high a frequency
                  as possible</div>
                <div class=""><br class="">
                </div>
                <div class="">Is that a fair summary? Anything I’ve
                  missed? (Noise shaping the dither, I suppose)</div>
                <div class=""><br class="">
                </div>
                <div class="">For (1) I can move the clock from 16MHz to
                  32MHz, so there’s a small improvement.</div>
                <div class="">For (2) we can increase the frequency
                  increment, assuming I can work out a way to get the
                  chip to provide the division for (3). If I could run
                  the NCO at (say) x8 of the frequency I need, that
                  might offer some real benefit.</div>
                <div class="">The dither (4) doesn’t really depend on
                  anything else, so that should be do-able.</div>
                <div class="">The LFO sample frequency should also be
                  able to increase since the whole chip is running twice
                  as fast as the previous generation (32 vs 16MHz
                  again). So everything else being equal, I might be
                  able to up the LFO sample rate to 50KHz or so.
                  However, that seems a bit crazy (audio-rate sampling
                  for an LFO with a max of 20Hz) and instead I might do
                  better to add some interpolation of the frequency
                  increment at the end of each cycle. E.g. We’re aiming
                  for an increment of X, and we’ve got an increment of
                  Y, so next cycle uses X+x to get a bit closer. The
                  difficulty there is that we need to know how many NCO
                  cycles there will be before our next LFO sample, and
                  that sounds horribly like division! So maybe just
                  whacking the LFO sample rate up is in fact the best
                  you can do for that after all.</div>
                <div class=""><br class="">
                </div>
                <div class="">Thanks,</div>
                <div class="">Tom</div>
                <div class=""><br class="">
                  <div class="">
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                               Electric Druid<br class="">
                        Synth & Stompbox DIY<br class="">
                        ==================</div>
                    </div>
                  </div>
                  <div class=""><br class="">
                    <blockquote type="cite" class="">
                      <div class="">On 28 Jan 2020, at 13:07, René
                        Schmitz <<a href="mailto:synth@schmitzbits.de" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">synth@schmitzbits.de</a>>
                        wrote:</div>
                      <br class="Apple-interchange-newline">
                      <div class=""><span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0,
                          0); font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">Hi
                          Richie,</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0,
                          0, 0); font-family: Helvetica; font-size:
                          12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps:
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                          normal; text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
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                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
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                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">On
                          28.01.2020 13:23,<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></span><a href="mailto:rburnett@richieburnett.co.uk" style="font-family: Helvetica; font-size:
                          12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps:
                          normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing:
                          normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start;
                          text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; widows: auto;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust:
                          auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">rburnett@richieburnett.co.uk</a><span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
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                          display: inline !important;" class=""><span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span>wrote:</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
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                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
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                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>>
                          What I don’t understand though is how this
                          helps. Increasing the</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
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                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
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                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>>
                          output frequency is going to increase aliasing
                          too, and dividing it</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
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                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
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                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>>
                          down again afterwards doesn’t seem to remove
                          that to me. How does</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
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                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
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                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>>
                          this work please, René?</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
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                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
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                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
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                          display: inline !important;" class="">>></span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
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                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
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                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>
                           It's a standard trick. With higher DDS clock
                          you get smaller</span><br style="caret-color:
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                          text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>
                          time-errors, and then the divide down just
                          removes transitions between</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>
                          the transitions. Higher synthesized frequency
                          allows you to use more</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>
                          of the upper bits of the DDS, to achieve more
                          effective bits useable</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>>
                          in the DDS.</span><br style="caret-color:
                          rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica;
                          font-size: 12px; font-style: normal;
                          font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight:
                          normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align:
                          start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;
                          -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;
                          text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">></span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">> Ok,
                          so this allows you to make better use of the
                          available DDS frequency</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">> bit
                          resolution, by synthesising a higher output
                          frequency and then</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>
                          dividing it down.  But it doesn't do anything
                          to help with</span><br style="caret-color:
                          rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica;
                          font-size: 12px; font-style: normal;
                          font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight:
                          normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align:
                          start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;
                          -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;
                          text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">>
                          jitter/aliasing at the top end.</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">Here are
                          your original points:</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">1)
                          Resampling of the LFO output by the NCO reset</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">2)
                          Frequency stepping caused by the NCO minimum
                          frequency step</span><br style="caret-color:
                          rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica;
                          font-size: 12px; font-style: normal;
                          font-variant-caps: normal; font-weight:
                          normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align:
                          start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;
                          -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;
                          text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">3)
                          Jitter cycles caused by the NCO</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">Well it
                          helps updating your NCO more frequently,
                          because each cycle is shorter now. I.e. higher
                          sampling rate of your LFO.</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">The NCOs
                          minimum frequency step is reduced. Because the
                          tuning word effectively shifts right, bringing
                          in room for more LSBs.</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">The
                          cycle to cycle time variation (aka jitter) is
                          still 1/f(clock) of your NCO. Not really an
                          improvement there by the division, if you run
                          the NCO at the same frequency as before. But
                          if you can run the NCO clock higher then the
                          variation is reduced.</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">Best,</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">René</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">--</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <a href="mailto:synth@schmitzbits.de" style="font-family: Helvetica; font-size:
                          12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps:
                          normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing:
                          normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start;
                          text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; widows: auto;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust:
                          auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">synth@schmitzbits.de</a><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <a href="http://schmitzbits.de/" style="font-family: Helvetica; font-size:
                          12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps:
                          normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing:
                          normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start;
                          text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; widows: auto;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust:
                          auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">http://schmitzbits.de</a><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">_______________________________________________</span><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <span style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0);
                          font-family: Helvetica; font-size: 12px;
                          font-style: normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none; float: none;
                          display: inline !important;" class="">Synth-diy
                          mailing list</span><br style="caret-color:
                          rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family: Helvetica;
                          font-size: 12px; font-style: normal;
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                          normal; letter-spacing: normal; text-align:
                          start; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;
                          -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;
                          text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <a href="mailto:Synth-diy@synth-diy.org" style="font-family: Helvetica; font-size:
                          12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps:
                          normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing:
                          normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start;
                          text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; widows: auto;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust:
                          auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">Synth-diy@synth-diy.org</a><br style="caret-color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-family:
                          Helvetica; font-size: 12px; font-style:
                          normal; font-variant-caps: normal;
                          font-weight: normal; letter-spacing: normal;
                          text-align: start; text-indent: 0px;
                          text-transform: none; white-space: normal;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-stroke-width:
                          0px; text-decoration: none;" class="">
                        <a href="http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy" style="font-family: Helvetica; font-size:
                          12px; font-style: normal; font-variant-caps:
                          normal; font-weight: normal; letter-spacing:
                          normal; orphans: auto; text-align: start;
                          text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none;
                          white-space: normal; widows: auto;
                          word-spacing: 0px; -webkit-text-size-adjust:
                          auto; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px;" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy</a></div>
                    </blockquote>
                  </div>
                  <br class="">
                </div>
              </div>
              _______________________________________________<br class="">
              Synth-diy mailing list<br class="">
              <a href="mailto:Synth-diy@synth-diy.org" class="" moz-do-not-send="true">Synth-diy@synth-diy.org</a><br class="">
              <a class="moz-txt-link-freetext" href="http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy">http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy</a><br class="">
            </div>
          </blockquote>
        </div>
        <br class="">
      </div>
      <br class="">
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      <pre class="moz-quote-pre" wrap="">_______________________________________________
Synth-diy mailing list
<a class="moz-txt-link-abbreviated" href="mailto:Synth-diy@synth-diy.org">Synth-diy@synth-diy.org</a>
<a class="moz-txt-link-freetext" href="http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy">http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy</a>
</pre>
    </blockquote>
  </div>

_______________________________________________<br class="">Synth-diy mailing list<br class=""><a href="mailto:Synth-diy@synth-diy.org" class="">Synth-diy@synth-diy.org</a><br class="">http://synth-diy.org/mailman/listinfo/synth-diy<br class=""></div></blockquote></div><br class=""></div></body></html>